With the exception of Turkey and Iran, all states of the Middle East - former colonies, protectorates and mandated territories, retained the former European metropolises with economic, political and military ties.What are today the results of these very complicated relationship?
Significant influence on foreign and domestic policies of European countries have a diaspora upon Middle East.The biggest of them - the Arab (more than 6 million people, including millions of Algerians and Moroccans 900 000 in France), Turkish (more than 5 million people, of whom 2.3 million in Germany) and Pakistan (2.5 million people, which 1.2 million in the UK).Close to them for political preferences in general are as many Muslims from Africa, Bangladesh, India and South-East Asia.
All these “new Europeans”, without attempting to be integrated into the assuming society, create social load, procreate problems with crime and narcotics trafficking. And in this case they are medium for the propagation in Europe of radical Islamism, serve as the base of extremists and terrorist groups, they become recruiting contingent for conducting the jihad in Iraq and Afghanistan. The moderate leaders are driven away to the periphery of Islamic public life.The result is natural.Everywhere is the explosive growth in popularity of right-wing parties in EU struggling with the Islamization of Europe and emigration, not least legal. Routes that use the path to Europe come from Middle East countries go through Spain (including the Moroccan enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla), Italy and the Balkans (with the support of Islamic groups in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and Bosnia).
In the 70-80th century, European leftist parties, including the British Labour Party, supported the arguments of populist conservative Muslim leaders, Islamists held in national parliaments and encouraged immigrant communities openly practice their tradition, de facto encouraging conflict with the natives.As a result, currently in Britain, where Muslims make up 5 percent - about 3 million people, over 34 percent of Muslims who are studying in universities, feel justified in killing in the name of the interests of religion. Romano-Germanic world has become a rear base of Islamist radicals.Hamas since the early 90s made their networks in the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Denmark.
What was the result, for example, on foggy Albion? Established by Defence League of England, there is a surge in popularity of the ultra British National Party, was made by the Prime Minister David Cameron (followed by similar statements of French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Chancellor Angela Merkel) to revise the policy of multiculturalism.
"In the containment of Islamic expansion in the EU's national interests take precedence over unexpectedly common tasks Union.This was confirmed by a conflict of France and Italy because of the reception of the Tunisian and Libyan refugees"
In Germany in the early 2000s, the Islamists have surpassed three times the number of right-wing and more than 1.5 times the left-wing extremists, and on the effectiveness of organizational structures have been much more effective.The largest union - "Muslim Brotherhood" (BM), Hamas, and "Hezbollah".
BM started to "works righteousness" on German soil since the inception of the Islamic community in the Federal Republic (IGD) in 1960 in coordination with the 1973rd in the framework of the Islamic Center in Munich (IZM).The number of "Muslim brothers" in Germany - about two thousand.They work connected Workers Union of Muslims in European countries (UELAM) and the Union of Muslim student organizations in Europe (UMSO).
Hamas in Germany (up to thousands of members) was formed in 1981 on the basis of the Palestinian branch of the BM (the country's Palestinian community numbers more than 100 thousand people).
The number of German-sponsored Iranian supporters of the "Hezbollah", accused of carrying out terrorist attacks in Paris, Buenos Aires and Berlin in the early 2000s was about 800 people, and now - more than 3,500."Hezbollah" tacitly supports the leadership IZH, associated with the Council of Islamic Communities in Hamburg.Institutional framework includes 30 mosques and Islamic culture organizations, including the Berlin mosque of Imam Reza, the Hamburg Islamic Center and the Center of Imam Mahdi in Münster Hiltrupe.Information is supported by the Lebanese TV channel "Hezbollah» Al-Manar, broadcasting in Germany through the Egyptian and Saudi ISPs.
In the Netherlands more than a quarter of immigrants from Morocco and Turkey - are unemployed, and over half of young Moroccans are registered with the police.The ratio of immigrants to the traditions of their host countries characterized by the tragic death in 2004 in Amsterdam filmmaker Theo van Gogh.He made a film about the situation of women in the Islamic world and lost his life for it.He was killed by Islamist suspected of involvement in a terrorist group.
And one result of this interaction between the two cultures.Founded in 2006, Geert Wilders' Freedom Party three years later the election to the European Parliament received 17 percent of the vote, taking five of the 25 seats on the national quota.In 2010, municipal elections, it brought an office in the lower chamber of the States-General from 9 to 24 deputies (15.5 percent).Wilders announced the creation of anti-Islamic coalition, "International Alliance of Freedom", whose members should support Israel, with offices in USA, Canada, France, Germany and the UK.
Priorities of the Old World
Ban on the construction of minarets in Switzerland, the same actions of public associations and political parties in other European countries show a high conflict potential in the relationship with Muslims.And this is not due to "payback" for the colonial past, or support for Israel.At the core of a dynamically growing aversion - the idea of neo-Salafite "New Caliphate", part of which, according to Islamists, should be the Old World.
Support demands made by the Arab world to Israel, the loyalty of the Islamist leaders and give them political asylum only exacerbate this confrontation.The example of Switzerland and Austria, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, the Benelux countries and Scandinavia, including Denmark - victims of the "cartoon scandal", instigated by the Palestinian mufti of Copenhagen - convincing evidence of this.
In deterring Islamist expansion of the EU's national interests take precedence over unexpectedly common tasks Union.This was confirmed by a conflict of France and Italy because of the reception of the Tunisian and Libyan refugees arriving on the island of Lampedusa.In the same series of Brussels refusing to support Rome, though he sought the distribution of living on the continent of unemployed immigrants from the Middle East on habitats of EU accession countries of Eastern Europe.
Meanwhile, both pan-European projects and programs in which the region is home to some European countries, traditionally associated with the protection of human rights and the "promotion of democracy and the rule of law."However, in the event of a conflict of interest is given priority so important to the EU Economic Affairs, as the laying of the pipeline "Nabucco" and implementation of energy to the construction of solar Desertec parks in Laayoune and Cape Bohadore in Western Sahara (in spite of protests from human rights activists).
The first package (EUR 20 million) of the European Commission and European foreign service (EAD) for the program "Partnership with the southern Mediterranean in the name of democracy and prosperity" is "the development of civil society."EU - the main donor agency, UNRWA and the Palestinian Authority, dealing with the problem of Palestinian refugees in the UN as a "co-sponsor of the peace process" has increased pressure on Israel, supporting the claim for him the Palestinian organizations.A large part of countries - members of the EU supports the UN recognition of a Palestinian state "within the 1967 borders."
Servicemen States - the EU Member States participated with peacekeeping missions in Cyprus, Western Sahara, Sudan and Lebanon, the fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns.True, this limited participation, the EU has focused on (including in Afghanistan) training of local armies and police forces, supplies, armament, equipping both.To support the Afghan police, for example, the union since 2002, singled out (mainly the "Fund for the maintenance of law and order in Afghanistan», LOTFA) 135 million euros (of which Germany - 70 million).
Brussels held the Resolution № 1386 of UN Security Council on the establishment of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.Britain, Germany and the Netherlands carried out the operational management of the initial period of their formation.The decision of the European Council in December 2001, the post of his special representative for Afghanistan, and a year later when the EU Ambassador accredited IRA.Among the EU's priorities in Afghanistan - the fight against drug production.
In 2001 the EU allocated 67 million euros to Afghanistan, followed by - 680 million dollars (of which the EU budget - 275 million euros).EU commitment to support the IRA have exceeded one billion euros (including 300 million has been allocated by the European Commission).In 2003, the same Commission, in addition to funds to support the police, provided 9 million on development of the eastern regions of the IRA and 3 million to strengthen the Afghan-Iranian border, and in 2003-2004 - 100 million for agricultural development.EU draws to an IRA donor funds.In 2006, London Conference on Afghanistan, launched by the EU, adopted the International Plan for Afghanistan and the declaration of the EU - Afghanistan.In addition to the budget at the expense of the IRA carried out the EU clearance, reconstruction of roads, rehabilitation of irrigation systems, support for primary schools and hospitals, clean up the debris and delivery of drinking water, distribution of seeds and food in rural areas, homeless children and refugees in Pakistan and Iran.
Politics of the Old World in Middle East outside the EU in many ways similar but in some cases significantly different.Thus, there seems to be a common European approach to the Israeli-Palestinian "peace process".But the views on this issue in Czechoslovakia (remembering of our own history in the late 30s), Germany (which has a special relationship with Israel because of the responsibility for the consequences of the Holocaust) and Italy (with Silvio Berlusconi), pro-Arab position far from the British and French interests which lie in the Islamic world.The exception was a brief alliance in London and Paris to Tel Aviv in its war against Egypt in 1956.It is British policy to split the Muslim and non-Muslim part of such former colonies and mandated territories of ex-mistress of the seas, as Palestine, India and Cyprus.
By the way, thanks to a quarter of a century held policy of multiculturalism, and traditional mutual mistrust intelligence modern Paris and London - the location of the European headquarters of the Jihadist underground.
Differences in Middle East politics in Germany, France and Britain appear in other areas.The United Kingdom supports the military-political alliance with the United States (based in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE).France (along with Qatar) competes with the United States, including in Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, Libya and elsewhere.Germany is involved only in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, avoiding military operations and political alliances with local forces.At the same time from 296 million euros earmarked EU AMIS African Union Mission in Sudan gave Germany 68 million.
Meanwhile, the EU with the support of the United States turns a mixed mission in Darfur and prints from the settlement of Qatar, preparing retirement oriented to Paris and J. Bassolé change the format of negotiations due to attempts to dictate to African nations Sarkozy stance on Libya.In Somaliland government that focus on the United States, struggling with pro-French clans, which opened a representative enclave in Paris, weakened the central government in the fight against insurgents, "Al-Shabab".Similar processes are taking place in Eritrea and Djibouti.In Libya, Gaddafi in operations against France acted as the leader, the United Kingdom takes a proactive stance, the U.S. is the main striking force, and Germany abstained from participation.
In the matter of Turkey's accession to the European Union opted for Britain, France - against it, Germany does not approve it in a restrained manner.The EU has opened the domestic market for Pakistani goods, the British (and U.S.) - no.Competition in Paris and Berlin to the EU in an attempt to oust him from the EFS, creating a "Union for the Mediterranean", limiting the ambitions of Germany, "Eastern Partnership" and the "Northern Dimension" initiative led to the submission (Turkey and Algeria, criticized her, and Libya rejected) EU. Response by Germany could be to create a peacekeeping alliance with Turkey and the CSA.In Egypt, France, in 2010, becoming a key supplier of grain (180 tons through the company GASC), competes with Germany (on arrangement of the Gaza border), U.S. Code (MTC), the CSA with Qatar and Jordan (because of the Egyptian claims the status of key countries and the chief peacemaker in Middle East).
France and Britain - the supporters of tougher sanctions on Iran in Berlin, turning economic cooperation with Iran, do it gradually.With fuel market of Iran went Vitol Group (Netherlands), Trafigura and Glencore (Switzerland), Reliance Industries (India), BP (UK) and Total (France).Did the same in 2010, Siemens and the insurance companies Allianz and Munich Re (Germany), but the producer gas plants Linde will retain business in Iran, and chemicals group Bayer.In 2009 the company exported Germany goods to IRI for 3.4 billion euros (2nd place in the foreign trade of Iran).Among them, Uhde - a subsidiary of Thyssen, arms manufacturer Fritz Werner Industrie-ausruestungen, Cemag Anlagenbau, E & Z.Payments go through Dubai.Paris, in cooperation with Russia is trying to bring the negotiations on Iran's nuclear program out of the impasse, but London is so active on human rights issues in Iran that Ambassador C. Gass has been banned from entering there.In December 2010 the Committee on National Security and Foreign Policy Majlis approved a bill that requires breaking the political, economic and cultural ties between Iran and Britain.
Increasing cooperation with Pakistan, Britain intends to increase the bilateral trade volume from 1.6 to 4.1 billion by 2015.For the development of the education and health of the country is allocated a four-year 650 million pounds.These funds will build schools for four million children, to prepare the 90 000 teachers and 6 million to publish textbooks.Following his visit in Pakistan David Cameron was awarded the need to expand the British-Pakistani consultation on Defense and Security, police and judicial system, organized crime, human trafficking and drug control.
France in the Maghreb, based in Morocco and Algeria.Its cooperation with Libya, broken and has no chance of recovery before the end of the war with her.As guarantor of the safety of Morocco, Rabat, Paris supports the position of providing Western Sahara autonomy within Morocco and blocking the UN Security Council other projects to solve this problem.Thanks to the lobbying of Paris Rabat in 2008, he received advanced status in the EU.The largest project in France, Morocco (2 billion euro) contract to build a high-speed railway Tangier - Casablanca.Helping to Morocco for training in the field of economy, developing with him cooperation in tourism, Paris criticizes the investment climate and the state of human rights, recommends reform of the tax system.
Algeria in its relations with France, maintains the distance.The demand reparations for 1830-1962 years, when he was a French colony, wrecked the conclusion of a treaty of friendship, proposed in 2003, Jacques Chirac, Sarkozy, whose return in 2007 signed the Convention on cooperation for 10 years.Algeria has expressed concern about the inclusion of SDS in Israel and has refused to normalize relations with Morocco through the mediation of Paris.However, France is discussing with the Algerian problem carried out in 1960-1966 in the Sahara's nuclear test (up to 40 explosions), chemical and biological weapons.In 2003 the two countries signed an agreement to coordinate operations against organized crime and terrorism.In Algeria operates more than 250 French companies, with annual turnover of the Fifth Republic - approximately $ 8 billion.France is building pipelines in Algeria, working in the field of hydrocarbon production and processing, contributes to the exploration of space, building a reception center and the MCC information satellites.In 2006, Algeria has settled in Paris, issues of external debt in 2007 contracted to EUR 5 billion to supply equipment for the transport network, water, energy, petrochemical industry.
In 2008, France signed documents on cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy from Morocco (a declaration of intent) and Algeria (partnership agreement).The basic project in this area for Morocco is the future nuclear power plants near the town of Safi.The agreement with Algeria provides for joint fundamental research, technology transfer, training of local personnel involved in the construction of nuclear power plant, a joint development and extraction of uranium.
Reduction of trade between Germany and Arab countries for financial and economic crisis has been limited.Its volume is 42 billion euros.The region has claimed the German experience in road and rail planning and construction.So, Dornier Consulting GmbH has projects in the Transport and Water Management in the UAE, KSA and Sudan.Deutsche Bank UK, Daimler AG, Commerzbank AG, Euler Hermes and other Middle Eastern banks are attracted to work with the EU.
The largest Arab investor is Germany - Kuwait owns shares in companies Daimler and GEA.However, investment Leoni Bordnetz-Systeme GmbH helped to create 17 000 jobs in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt.From Abu Dhabi approved program and budget ($ 25 million) co-operation with the International Agency for Renewable Energy (IRENA, headquartered in Bonn).As part of promoting democracy in the BSV Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is developing a network of Independent Media (5.25 million euros), Youth Employment Program (8 million), funding small and medium business (EUR 20 million).In 2012-2013 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany has laid a number of programs to fund the "Partnership for Transformation," several tranches of 50 million euros.
Yevgeny Satanovsky ,
President Middle East Institute