Let us take a look at a more special feature of small machine pistols, which engaged sufficiently durable positions in the contemporary small arms system of law-enforcement agencies and special-purpose formings.
Basics of Search
The use of low power pistol cartridge on the one hand, limits the range of 150-200 meters Aimed Shot, on the other - provides a lightweight, compact design with a small mass of ammunition. It would seem an excellent compact choice, always ready to use is the automatic "weapons of the near-defense and attack," suitable for firing from anchoring, just for instance, with the hands, providing a high density of fire in the shortest possible time. In addition, the pistol cartridge with a relatively low gas pressure in the barrel and muzzle velocity below or slightly above the speed of sound is easy to use silencers.
Meanwhile, the traditional pistol cartridges, including type 9x19[mm], which in service with many countries around the world, no longer fully satisfy the current requirements by a combination of the breakdown and stopping action. Widespread personal body armor made it necessary to qualitatively strengthen the piercing power of bullets, without decreasing their stopping quality. Certainly, the potential possibilities of the widely used types of pistol cartridges are as yet far from exhausted - about this testify at least the developments of the Russian designers of small arms. But a number of the models of new type small automatic weapon appeared in the recent two decades. They are smaller in comparison with assault rifles, submachine guns, carbines and more powerful than the "traditional" guns and submachine guns.
It is clear that the search is based on choice chuck. And you can see two trends: the more powerful pistol cartridges "traditional" caliber and small caliber, occupying an intermediate position between the pistol and submachine ammo.
In 1996 Federal Security Service adopted by a powerful 9-mm pistol with a cartridge CP1 SP10. This is the development of experimental complex, which included a 9-mm cartridge-type RG052 RG055 9x21 and gun systems P. Serdyukov. Ammunition and weapons of increased power created by Central Research Institute of Precision Engineering (TSNIITOCHMASH) in the suburban town Klimovsk is engaged in the development work on a new combat pistol on "The Rook" (later on the basis of the same system was created a 9-mm pistol ATP, adopted on Russian army).
Pilot operation of pistols, started in 1993 in spetsnaz units of law enforcement agencies. At the same time the Ministry of Security of Russia (later the FSB) has issued an order to develop a new pistol (code "Vector") and compact submachine gun. It is worth noting that the possibility of creating a submachine gun was assumed at the beginning of the construction of a new complex with a pistol 9x21 cartridge.Now, this idea took shape in the form of development activities under the code "Heather." Advanced cartridge was designated SP10, pistol, ordered the Lubyanka - CP1, sub-machine gun - CP2 (an abbreviation of "SP" means "special development", "CP" - "special cartridge").
Mastering machine pistol Veresk in TSNIITOCHMASH finished by mid-1998, and in 2000 took on board.
Sample linked to the scheme with a combination of jacks and store the pistol grip control. The main features of a submachine gun: a rare for this class of weapon system and automatic node locking the barrel by turning the bolt. The extraction of the powder gases produced through the cross hole in the wall of the barrel to the gas chamber, located above the barrel. In automation leading element is the slide, rigidly connected with the gas piston rod. The bolt has six combat projections. The recoil spring is housed in the bolt channel. The design of the moving parts of automation and the impact mechanism is similar to that previously used in the development of TSNIITOCHMASH automatic CP3.
Well-made retracting handle is located from the right side - this made it possible to decrease the transverse overall size of weapon. The compensator is fastened to the muzzle part of the stem. The box of automation and its hinged on the hinge cover are made by cold pressing from steel plate.
Percussion device - such as striker. The flag of nonautomatic safety device is located on the right side,with the start the safety device blocks descent, and its flag overlaps groove for the passage of retracting handle. A separate translator a lever located on the left side and sets a single and automatic fire, the flag is an interpreter available for the thumb, holding the weapon.
Stock is - from a direct box with a detachable staggered magazine of ammunition. On expenditure of ammunition feeder magazine rests on the shutter, which contributes to the ejection of the store after clicking on its latch. It is double-sided, which allows the rapid replacement of store with the shooting from the right or left hand.
The bullet cartridge SP10 with heat-treated core in favor of the shell securely destroys targets in personal body armour (second and third classes of protection) or in unarmored vehicles. In addition SP10 SP11 cartridges can be used with 7BT3 with armor-piercing tracer bullet.
Front sight with a fuse is installed near the muzzle of the barrel. Rear mechanical sight is designed for long-range shooting 100 and 200 metres. With the bracket on the lid of the box can be mounted automatic collimator sight CP-CP2 for 60deg field of view. It is necessary to note that the collimator gun sights, which make it possible to rapidly combine sighting mark with the purpose and to direct weapon, leaving opened both eyes, are considered by the number of specialists as basic with conducting of transient battle at the short distance.
Butt weapon - a metal stamped, folded up and forward, with a folding shoulder rest. Pistol control handle and shank are prepared from the high-impact plastic, pistol handle is executed together with the trigger guard, shank covers stem, front support is established in front of it. The front bend of trigger guards designed for the delivery of fire from the elongated hands, similar to shooting from the pistol with the two-handed grip.
The submachine gun was modernized. In SR2M at pivot instead of a hard stop came down front grip which improves handling of weapons and accuracy. In the folded position handle becomes part of the forearm. Somewhat changed the fuse box. Furthermore, weapon obtained another muzzle device - now these are not muzzle brake- compensator,but the muzzle attachment- support, which protects brush pointer from the displacement forward and the burns by solid-reactant gases.
"Versek is worn openly on the belt or covertly, in the case with the suspension, accommodating the weapons and spare magazine.
Among the most popular themes of the development in "military" and "policeman" of small arms abroad in 1990-2000-ies can be called a Personal Defence Weapon. Term rather arbitrary and are treated well, but as a rule it understands small-sized specimen, designed for firing single shots and bursts of small distances, not too burdening the owner to carry around and reliably hitting the first shot or turn the enemy - even if behind body armour. The designers of German company "Heckler und Koch" marching to the type of weapon several times and with varying success. In 2000 the company introduced a model which has received the designation of "machine pistol MP7” and since then, well-established.
For the beginning, a new cartridge 4.6 x30 was made. In making the munition, which preserves the dignity of small ranges of automata with mass and pressure in the barrel, comparable with a powerful pistol cartridge, the Germans were not the first. In the late 80s at the Belgian "Fabrique Nationale" constructed the original machine - or a submachine gun, if you like - P90 chambered for SS190 (5,7 h28). P90 has caused widespread interest then, but despite the optimistic predictions have not found wide acceptance. We bought it in small quantities. Nevertheless, the German company has also gone towards the creation of a new weapons complex as a whole, including the new munition.
Patron 4.6 x30 RUAG-“Amoteh" fused pointed bullet with a small flat area on the apex. With an initial speed 725 m / s and 1.6 grams of weight bullet with steel core and copper jacket allegedly punches at a distance of 200 meters, that is within range of firing range, target behind 1.6-mm titanium plate and 20 layers of Kevlar. This corresponds to a standard of protection body armur and 1-2nd class on the domestic standard. Flatness of the trajectory, caused by high velocity bullets, helps to increase accuracy, although the range of effective fire is unlikely to exceed 100 meters.
In developing the weapons the Germans, too, resorted to automation with a gas engine and a hard lock unit. In a constructive design of appropriate mechanisms "Heckler und Koch" decided, combining already found solutions. MP7 PDW linked to the scheme with a combination of nest store with a pistol grip control - it's not too increase its size, because the length of the cartridge - 38 millimeters.
The extraction of the powder gases occurs through the side hole in the wall of the barrel. Locking its channel by turning the bolt. The reflector is mounted in the bolt sleeve. The design automation components and locking mechanism used MP7 experience developing G36 assault rifle of the same company, but the details of these two models are not interchangeable. Differently works automation, in particular piston and pusher in MP7 they are united in contrast to G36.. There is a shock absorber to mitigate the impact of mobile systems in the rearward position.
The barrel is made by cold forging. Its muzzle is threaded for mounting the flame arrester and a hole for fixing the silencer. Receiver is assembled from plastic parts. For the best protection of mechanisms from pollution and decreasing the overall transverse size is used the T-shaped retracting handle of rear arrangement, with the shooting it remains fixed. Two-way translator, a lever fuse sets and single-mode automatic fire. Check box is available for a thumb shooting hand.
Arms equipped with a retractable stock and a folding front grip in the folded position plays the role of the forearm. Trigger guard is designed for shooting in tight gloves.
Stock is - from the removable box two-row store to 20 cartridges (it is represented and store in 40 cartridges). The double-sided lever of its catch is located behind the trigger guard.
MP7 A1 comes in two versions: KSK is designed for special forces, IDZ - for the army. The main difference - in the sights. "Infantry” IDZ equipped entirely with an open slot, spetsnaz KSK - changeover diopter sight. Low-profile iron sights completed step bar of the "Picatinny" to install the red-dot sight.Diopter in MP7 A1 KSK allows complete with collimator sights RSA “Hesoldt", "Eympoynt", "Eoteh", and aimed fire can lead to night vision goggles. At the same plate, if necessary put a laser designator.
Cartridge loaded with 4.6 x30 is not only a bullet with steel core. There are variants of the same ammunition with tracer bullets and a weighted, having a subsonic muzzle velocity. Weighted bullet used in conjunction with a silencer the Swiss company "Brugger und Tomet" (weight 520 g), which is mounted directly on the flash suppressor. If the fire is high-speed bullet, silencer unit is low noise firing.
It is hardly necessary to attach great importance to the external similarity of the samples described construction - SR2M and MP7 A1 - similar problems inevitably lead to similar decisions.
Their options for small caliber ammunition "near-weapons defense” PDW and other developers have created. We can mention, for example, a cartridge 6.5x25 CBJ-MS Swedish company CBJ Tech AB, or 5.56 x23 (.224 VOB) Czech "Luvo." However, in contrast to a 5.7-mm Belgian and German 4.6-mm these cartridges and models of weapon remained experimental.