Sunday, May 15, 2011

Chinese Aircraft Carrier: The History Of Discovery And Development Prospects

by Vedernikov, Y.

Modern China, successfully implementing a programme of economic development, known as the "programme of four upgrades", begun in 1978. Realizing the mark of the first decade of the 21st century strategy "Go outside" [1], the country goes to the level of world powers.

Thus, in 2005, according to Russian scientists [2] gross domestic product of China amounted to 8,583 billion dollars. that equates 70.3% of U.S. GDP, 72,3% of total GDP of European countries is twice the same period in Japan and 5.5 times in Russia ... We do not know the military aspects of the "four modernizations program" - in the open press as- that this was not mentioned. However, our investigation [3] on the present state of Navy People's Liberation Army of China (hereinafter referred to as PLA Navy, Eng. Synonym - PLAN), performed on the results of 2006, clearly indicates the inadequacy of the current state of PLA Navy unlike national economic success of the state. In its essence remained the coastal fleet, the weight of modern vehicles is 19,4%, while modern aircraft in the ground-based naval aviation - 17,3%. It is obvious that before the Chinese leadership, is the task of modernizing the national navy.

In this context are obviously most viewed programmes:

  • Creation of naval strategic nuclear forces, which resulted in the construction of two missile submarines with ballistic missiles, and two attack submarines, to ensure their combat stability.
  • Renewal of the warships, which resulted in the construction of six new destroyers of the national construction, acquisition of four Russian-built destroyers and frigates, construction of 6 new type. In addition to the system were introduced in 22 submarines and 9 large amphibious ships. It seems difficult to value this update, but roughly estimated operational introduction is some 170 thousand. tons of new tonnage that is around 30% of the total in 2006.

Carrier-based program is the object of the interest of Chinese fleet already sufficiently long ago, although there were no express political proclamations until recently in regard to this. Back in the late 1980's; to study the structural features of an aircraft carrier, China purchased the Australian carrier  "Melbourne" (formerly known as English. "Majestic", founded in 1943). After the sale, it was towed in South China, where in 1994 was  cut, and part of it is actively used by experts for the study. So, in 1995, an aircraft carrier deck was used for flight training of pilots of naval aviation in special courses. Catapult, the braking system, elevator and other mechanisms have been targets of scrutiny of Chinese specialists, which indicated the presence of gaps in the technological part of these mechanisms. Much attention was paid as an aircraft carrier, built in France: in 1996, China expressed interest in acquiring a failed aircraft carrier "Clemenceau" (1961 built), inferred from the Navy. It is also known that the sale of helicopters to China Super Frelon and Dauphin, the French side agreed to provide training to Chinese pilots under contract, in the landing on an aircraft carrier.

Spanish ship-building company “Impresa Of nasional” after seeing the interest of China in the aircraft carrier of middle class, granted for the examination two designs of building the aircraft-carrying ship. Both projects were the low-cost designs of light ship, with displacement in 16 thousand Tons, and by wing - 21 aircraft even 4 helicopters.. According to its characteristics, both the project consistent with the draft Thai Navy aircraft carrier "Chakri Narubet”. In 1995, the head of the Spanish company visited China and held talks on the contract for construction, but to no avail. Later, representatives from China visited the aircraft carrier, having a very specific purpose review and establishment of the possibility of buying the ship at a lower price, using the economic difficulties experienced by Thailand at the moment. The first, more or less, modern aircraft carrier  were the Soviet heavy cruisers (TAKR) "Minsk" and "Kiev", acquired by China in early 1990. And the recent acquisition of China has become a heavy aircraft carrier cruiser Varyag purchased from Ukraine in 1998 at 70-75% complete. This ship is a (sistership) Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, which came into operation in 1991, constructed simultaneously with the Varyag, designed for the Soviet Pacific Fleet, ironically, and after long vicissitudes passed in 2002 Pacific Ocean, but in a completely different political status ... So China has at its disposal four carrier battle ship, one of them was analyzed and thoroughly studied, the other three are used to obtain information of a technical-structural plan in those areas where Chinese designers have difficulties. And in December 2008, Defense Ministry spokesman Huang Syuepin at a press conference stated that "... the presence of carriers reflects the combined strength of the country and the need to meet the needs of the Navy" . Replying to questions on whether the present moment most favorable for the construction of China's own aircraft carrier, he said that the Government intends to "... taking into account all the factors to consider seriously the issues related to the construction of the first domestic carrier ... China has a long coastline, the protection of the country the sea and its sovereignty over the coastal and adjacent sea areas are the sacred mission of China Sun .. " [4].

Consider the prospects of China's aircraft carrier program. Creating a future Chinese aircraft carrier is useful to consider in terms of possible options for achieving this target, namely:

  • completion and introduction into service purchased Russian "Varyag"
  • introduction to the PLA NAVY's carrier ship limited tonnage through the acquisition of such "side" or the construction of its own with design-technological aid and military supplies from third countries.

Consider these options, thus, it is logical to assume that at the completion; "Varyag" will be heavily loaded with Russian technology: the supply of arms and military equipment (AME). This is due to several factors:

  • Russia, one of the few countries that have comprehensive experience in the design, construction and operation of the aircraft carrier ships [5], can provide both design and technological assistance, and to supply military hardware, and unlikely, there will be limited in the actions of the political claims of the international community.
  • Earlier, Russia has delivered four modern class destroyers (Sovremenny-class), which were successfully exploited by Chinese crews. This is equally true of the main weapons carrier - aircraft of the Su-27 "long available in China, who has mastered their licensed production under the symbol “J-10 ", and to other types of military hardware.
  • The initial building of “Varyag” was achieved on the base of Soviet ship-building technologies and wide inter-project unification. As an example let us note that the power plants, ship systems, weapon and armament so forth in “Kuznetsov” (and respectively “Varyag”) were in many respects have been largely standardised with their peers-class "destroyers", already mastered by Chinese crews.

This approach of carrier construction will not help Chinese technology enhancement much. But, in our opinion, the involvement of Russian military hardware technologies for the restoration of "Varyag" will significantly save time and money. It is known that the development work of the "first case" series aircraft carrier ships (TAKR "Kiev") has been spent 30.5% of the total cost of the ship, while the cost of the "second body" ("Minsk") and the Fifth Corps" ("Smith") expenses were 11.9% [6]. One could even argue that the completion of "Varyag" will be significantly hampered, if not impossible, without Russian military-technical assistance. For example, it seems doubtful the possibility of China to independently restore the main steam-power installation of ship, not to mention the independent creation (restoration) of the aviation-engineering means which guarantee takeoff and landing of aircraft... Based on this conclusion, we can assume that the Varyag will largely look to repeat his "sistership" -Kuznetsov, making it easier to forecast the future of tactical and technical characteristics. Consider them as from the standpoint of the original-design realities and possibilities of their implementation in the Chinese version. Thus, at full displacement 61,390 tons, and the main power plant 200,000 horsepower, "Smith" has developed to test the full speed of 29 knots and cruising range with full tanks 9,918 tons fuel oil amounted to 3,850 miles at full speed, and 8417 miles - in the economic, the 14 knot speed. The ship served (by state) 520 officers, 322 warrant officer and 1138 sailors secured provisions for 45 days. We believe that these options "Kuznetsov" will be repeated on the Varyag, with more or less matched. Our fleet TAKR "Smith" provides for 50 aircraft, of which 26 fighters, 4 helicopters airborne patrol, "Ka-25RTS, 18 anti-submarine helicopters Ka-27" and 2 rescue helicopter Ka-27. The composition of the air group was supposed to form a combination of heavy fighters, Su-27 and light fighters MiG-29 [7], as well as helicopters of various purposes. Planned to use a radar patrol aircraft Yak-44RLD ", whose project remained on paper. The composition of the air group for "Varyag" will obviously be different, for several reasons.

Thus, China has made a bid to import aircraft, Su-27, including the deck aircraft and, unlike India, which has adopted for its future aircraft carrier « Vikramaditya »[8] version of a light fighter MiG-29". Reasons behind this decision are simple, but ambiguous.

"Su-27" clearly mastered, by the Chinese aviators, and by the Chinese aviation industry, in the licensed production of this machine. With greater mass and size, Su-27 has a 1000 km long flight range, with equal speed and weight of payload, which also has the advantage of range and time of air combat. With a large number of nodes it can carry wide variety of missiles.For example, the Su-27 can carry up to 6 anti-ship missile Kh-31A or 12 guided missile air-to-air missiles of various ranges, while the MiG-29 can carry a 4 or 8 missiles respectively. On the other hand, the MiG has a smaller size is more maneuverable, and a large number of machines can be housed in the hangar ship. According to a number of Soviet experts, "MiG-29" potentially superior to the Su-27 "by the criterion of" cost-effectiveness in 3.5 times, and only the collapse of the USSR made it impossible to bring this machine “to mind” ... But there is another, and in our view a significant advantage of the Su-27, is rarely mentioned in literature. With the creation of this airplane has been realized the possibility of its use as a carrier of a supersonic antiship cruise missile 3M80 "Mosquito", the missiles are mounted on four Chinese modern class destroyers. This imposing missile, when fastened to the special-suspension; could deliver impact to the distance of 250 km with speed nearly equal to three speeds of sound [9], and by the probability of kill of the warships 0.99[10]. We believe that the Chinese sailors and shipbuilders will be able to bring the air group "Varyag" up to 40 fighters, Su-27 "that will provide enough substantial and stroke and air capacity, as most aircraft carrier ship, and collateral squadron. The success of the acquisition and operation of the anti-components in the air group "Varyag" does not cause any doubts. The Chinese navy has been successfully used Russian deck helicopters Ka-27 and has substantial experience with the flight deck of the ship. Can also be engaged in more light, but also less effective  (Ji)-9C, created as a licensed version of the French AS 365N «Dauphin II».

Significant challenges await Varyag in the formation of air Radar Picket (RLD). Thus, the Russian analogue of this function was assigned to the helicopter Ka-25RTS "- a good set of air reconnaissance and targeting systems, which provided coverage of the situation; targeting at a distance of 250 km and in operational condition until the late 1980's. At Varyag these objectives will be accomplished through helicopter Ka-31, equipped with radar E-801" Eye ", which provides detection and tracking of up to 20 goals with the size fighter at a distance of 100-150 km and 250-285 km for surface targets and transmitting telecode information at a distance of 150 km. The duration of a helicopter patrol of the order of 2-3 hours. Obviously, for the lighting conditions even with a rapid deployment, a day will require substantial outfit Flying Machine-missions, and, respectively, and more helis and crews. It is equally obvious, helicopters radar picket much lower than efficient aircraft RLD - less time on patrol and a smaller range of detection, so just take the last of nowhere ... The stock of aviation fuel at the "Kuznetsov" is 2500 so that adequate approximately 250-270 sorties. The creation of a deck aircraft tankers for fighter jets let us carry "to the deep future" ...

Russia's "Smith" has a weapon that will not be used on Varyag. It is about 12 supersonic antiship missiles 3M45 "Granite" with a range of up to 550 km. This missile is not exported, and the unlikely-to be supplied by Russia to abroad. However, we do not tend to see this cause any lameness to Varyag. The fact that the Russian school building aircraft carrier ships characterized by a combination of "one body" functions and the aircraft carrier and strike missile ship. Perhaps this is due to "rocket euphoria” in 1960s ... On the other hand, the shock features on U.S. aircraft carriers implemented a deck-based aircraft, while the first Soviet aircraft carrier cruiser aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) were not able to realize the antiaircraft problem, not what a shock ... [11] Well, "remove These cruise missiles "from a cruiser and a battleship was the result? In defense of this position, you can bring the fact that the Indian aircraft carrier «Vikramaditya» planned to install anti-missile systems, "Brahmos" (Russian-Indian version of the Russian anti-ship missile "Mosquito"). We believe that the Indian sailors are very well aware that, despite all its positive qualities, anti-ship missiles that are used on MiGs have insufficient power Warhead (90-150 kg.), sufficient perhaps that for confident destruction of the target of class frigate. " Similar design and construction and elaboration were in the Soviet Navy: when the research design development, etc. 1143.4 ("Baku") has considered a through-flight deck and launchers of anti-ship missiles, blended to starboard. One way or another, but Varyag, unlike the Russian "sistershipa, such weapons have not. Released the same "weight and volume" can be used to accommodate additional stockpiles of weapons, but the ship is always there for what to use ... We believe that the Chinese shipbuilders and aircraft manufacturers implement appropriate in the Su-27 "aircraft-carrier function of anti-ship missile Mosquito , which and creating a potential shock Varyag. The basis of anti-aircraft capacity as a Kuznetsov, and on the Varyag amount fighter" Su-27 ".

In addition, anti-aircraft potential of Kuznetsov was: vertically launched missiles (SAM) "Dagger" (192 anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330-2) and 8 anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems (SPAR), "Kashtan" (256 SAM "9M311 and 48,000 30 mm rounds) and 6 anti-aircraft guns of the Ak-630M. We believe anti-aircraft guns of Chinese aircraft carrier slightly different. So, first of all, on the Varyag may be involved the new Chinese air defense system with vertical launch systems established under the Russian missiles 9M317ME.* This complex is successfully tested on the new Type054A Jiangkai Class Missile Frigate. The total number of missiles are 96-144. Instead of Russian Kashtan as a short-range air defense weapons; a Chinese anti-aircraft machine "Type 730" as the Dutch version of «Goalkeeper» will be used. Although the Russian CIWS Kashtan has "... certainly more efficient, outperforming« Crotale Naval »in 1.5-2.0 times, and the complex« Goalkeeper »- in 2.5-3.0 times ..." [12]. But on the Type-70 its not installed; this may be due to the large weight and size characteristics of Russian goods, or the fact that it isn’t in service with China navy ... However Chinese installed AK-630M, because of its miserable performance in modern era, Chinese shipbuilders, apparently abandoned it.

*The HQ-17 is a copy of Tor-M1, that China will use it to replace the aging HQ-61 SAMs, has entered service around the year 2005.

Coverage of air situation can be carried out by radar Podberezovik and two radar "Fregat-MA" as originally envisaged in Soviet project.This was due to the fact that the process used to "Kuznetsov" radar system "Mars-Passat, conceived of as an analogue of the American « Aegis », however, it did not meet its expectations, and needs substantial improvement. In practice, the lighting function and target designation radar backup was Fregat-M. Currently, radar Podberezovik offered for export, and radar family Fregat were exported to China for modern class destroyers. According to specifications, these complexes are able to detect the fighters at a distance of 230-240 km, cruise missiles - 50-55 km, and surface ships - at a range of radio horizon [13]. Quite possible is the use of phased array radar, by Chinese shipbuilders in two class destroyers "Lanzhou" (Project 052S, aboard. № 170 and 171).However, due to lack of information, both on the technical characteristics of this complex, and the results of their operation will predict their application to the Varyag difficult.

It seems that in the process of recovery "Varyag"; Chinese shipbuilders have addressed complaints to the energy-power plant of Kuznetsov - Increased power of the main power plant for development of design values ​​of travel speed, increased reliability of operation of steam generators (boilers), the evaporator, etc. . which is in detail analyzed in the Russian publications. [14]

As a result, we can conclude that the restoration of "Varyag" is a difficult but manageable challenge, quite capable of Chinese shipbuilding, with adequate assistance from the Russian enterprises. But it should reflect a significant problem - the creation of valuable air group it requires the time, necessary for creating the school of deck pilots, the organization of the well-coordinated work of crew and aviation-engineering maintenance, interaction of carrier-based aviation and of surface ships…... We believe we are talking about 6.5 years of systematic work . Recreating "Varyag" would entail significant costs. It is known that the establishment of five aircraft carrier ships for the Soviet Navy and the "two unfinished construction corps" "cost penalty" of 8.6 billion rubles. [15] The cost of putting in operation the Indian Navy aircraft carrier «Vikramaditya» amount, according to experts , 1,6 billion dollars. Obviously, the cost of putting in operation "Varyag" would be great. That economic considerations may encourage the Chinese leadership to abandon the project full-carrier and to draw on experience of the countries, which were limited to so-called “small aircraft carriers”. Just be aware that today's China is implementing a program to create nuclear submarine fleet and the renewal of fighting ships. An alternative to restoration of the "Varyag" could well serve the plans to build aircraft carriers similar to those created for the British fleet - «Invincible» (1980), the Spanish fleet - «Principe de Asturias» (1988) and the Thai Navy - «Chakri Naruebet» (1997). Created within a limited displacement - 12-20 tons, these ships aircraft carriers have been adapted for a limited objection to the fleet - 15-20 aircraft, limited aviaboezapasa (200-300 tons), and jet fuel (ie 600-1000), and as a consequence created to implement the "narrow objectives." Thus, the functionality of the «Invincible» is the management of anti-submarine forces of the British fleet, involved in anti-submarine warfare by heavy helicopters «Sea King» and participating in air defense operations through the combined fleets of aircraft vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) «Sea Harrier».By itself, the concept of combat use VTOL aircraft is not unambiguous, and has received neither positive nor negative resolution to date. The unique ability of these machines take off and sits upright, was achieved at the expense of other aircraft specifications.Thus, in the Soviet Navy VTOL Yak-38, range (90-160 km), duration of flight (20 min. Flight) and subsonic aircraft was unfit for air defense, leaving them as attack aircraft with a very small military capability. The plane was difficult: of 231 planes built in 15 years of operation 36 (15,6%) has been lost. However, the latter applies equally to foreign counterparts - the British Harrier, operating losses which amounted to 34,5%, and success in the Falklands conflict, in our opinion, was due to the blatant weakness of the Argentine Navy, and the absence in the British navy of another type fighter. Operating as "capriciousness" VTOL in the tropics is well known ... [16]

However, the implementation of the concept of a small aircraft carrier "for the Chinese navy, is not devoid of prospects. Thus, the introduction of the PLA Navy's two strategic missile submarines (SSBN) and two multipurpose nuclear-powered submarines (SSN) provides for the prospect of alternating and paired (Combatant Group: SSBN + SSN) patrol in the South China Sea. In turn, this requires the support of the ASW and air forces of the PLA Navy. In this respect for the Chinese navy will be useful a carrier-ship, armed helicopters, like the Soviet type, Project 1178, designed Nevsky Design Bureau in the 1980's, with 12-16 helicopters Ka-27PLO on board. Using the same on such a ship, landing and attack helicopters, as well as the possibility of deploying troops, will expand the range of combat capabilities of this ship, which is especially important for the limited and potentially disputed waters of the South China Sea [18].

Consider the combat potential of the "Varyag" and to reflect its impact on the combat power of the PLA Navy. Thus, among the factors affecting the combat power of the Chinese fleet, should be primarily attributed geographic space separating the countries of East Asia. Thus, the width of the Taiwan Strait is about 160 km, the distance between China and the Republic of Korea on the 38th parallel of the Yellow Sea is about 300 km. On the other hand, the output of the Chinese Navy in the ocean is limited to a chain of islands - Southern Japanese island of Taiwan, the Philippine archipelago ... It makes the obvious conclusion: the success of the conflict at sea, will be predetermined by the domination of the air. More or less effective anti-aircraft Chinese ships can be leveled by coast offshore (up to 200 miles offshore) operating area.. In this case, "... the use of fighter jets from coastal airfields greatly reduced speed and flexibility of their application, and all necessary outfits sometimes exceeds all reasonable limits ..." [19]. And when operating with forces of the modern Chinese navy in the more remote areas - marine (500 to 1000 miles) and the ocean (the 1000 miles), "designated" anti-missile capabilities are operational in only 58% of destroyers and 29% of the frigates, and even then confined to the ship's ammunition missiles. In fact, the potential defense of Chinese destroyers and frigates is negligible: calculations show [20], all types of Chinese destroyers and frigates are unable to reflect the impact eight anti-ship missile Harpoon [21] - "regular ammunition" for destroyer of the opposing party. Thus, antiaircraft role of the future aircraft carrier must be influential, in the marine and ocean areas.

In this connection should be noted the Russian publications [22], which carried out the comparative analysis of effectiveness in the naval action of Soviet 1143.5 Kuznetsov for the purpose of the destruction of the aircraft carrier of enemy through three versions:

  • on aircraft carrier strike nuclear submarines armed with cruise missiles (SSGN) and sea missile-carrying aviation
  • the same forces operate jointly with the carrier’s aviation, striking out with them, and
  • the impact bringing nuclear submarines and sea missile-carrying aviation, and carrier-based aviation solves the problems of the cover of these forces from the opposition (antisubmarine and fighter aircraft of enemy).

Published data make it possible to assert that with the second version increase in the effectiveness of solution of problem (in comparison with the first) will compose a total of several percentages, and with the third - the effectiveness of solution of problem grows by 30-50% (depending on tactical situation). On the other hand, the implementation of pre-emptive strike (by Chinese modern class destroyers) of  supersonic missiles Moskit guarantee success - both because of the force of 4 x 8 = 32 missiles, and because of short command and loading time. But to implement such an attack requires sufficient depth of targeting for these missiles destroyers, and a sufficient degree of operational stability of these ships. In the absence of sufficient funds for Chinese Navy airborne reconnaissance [23], China, unlike Japan, will be facing difficulty to implement continuous monitoring of air and surface surveillance of the water area, located on the East China Sea [24]. Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Forces on the contrary have the ability to implement and continuously monitor air and surface situation in the waters adjacent to the Japanese islands. This is facilitated by AEW system, administered by the Air Self-Defense Force, consisting of 13 aircraft AEW E-2C Hawkeye AWACS aircraft and four E-767 (Boeing 767 AWACS) [25]. It is obvious that this force is sufficient to organize around the clock watch on several operational areas, and the proximity of their areas of loitering to their databases and the absence of threats from the enemy fighters (which is taken while nowhere), make them work very effectively. It is obvious that the Chinese "Varyag" is able not only to provide the required combat stability of these destroyers, and give target designation for their weapons, but also strengthen the impact of ship missiles, by its supersonic "Mosquito."

Thus, we conclude that the re-creation of  "Varyag" as a fully fledged combat unit, you can talk about the creation of missile-carrier battle group - Varyag and four modern class destroyers. A major shortcoming of this aircraft carrier group will be the weak capacity of anti-submarine defense. So, modern class destroyers was originally conceived as a low-capacity ships with a low potential anti-submarine warfare. Adding anti-submarine helicopters into the aircraft carried by Varyag would substantially reduce its strike and anti-aircraft potential. It also would not solve the problem radically: a submarine hears a surface ship at several times the distance, while preventative discovery requires a substantial division of strength and capabilities, a limited search area of water, and luck.

It is known that the Soviet helicopter carrier Moskva, which came built in 1967, the first confident contact with the U.S. missile submarine (SSBN) occurred only four years later, and then only in limited Mediterranean Sea and in the absence of active opposition from the " potential enemy "... In the memoirs of Soviet submarines - veterans of the Cold War often give examples of the inability of old-school diesel-electric Soviet submarines that not once managed to get through the line that was controlled by modern American Nuclear aircraft carriers. In this case, SSK "managed" to remain undetected by the Americans and successfully carry out training torpedo attacks ... For example, we think it would be quite difficult for a surface ship or a group of anti-submarine helicopters to preventatively detect a nuclear submarine, such as an Akula class submarine (which is leased to the Indian Navy). The American experience with carrier strike groups (CSG) tells us of including a multipurpose nuclear submarine along with an aircraft carrier, the prospects of which for the Chinese fleet in the foreseeable future are thus far doubtful…

Drawbacks of CSG are dependence on the activity of the vessels of material and technical supply and, impossibility or limited use of a wing in the adverse weather conditions. It is considered that the ships of American CSG have reserves of weapon and supplies to 4-5 days of intensive military operations. It is obvious that this group sits “tightly” in the eastern Chinese and South China seas, but this connection completely can be used beyond the limits of these seas as “free sea force”. We must agree with the view that the implementation of the "free sea power" is an inalienable right of the People's Republic as a subject of world politics, to protect its interests, which depend, more and more, from an international (offshore) trade. In 2002, the share of foreign trade to gross domestic product of China amounted to 51% in 2003, this value was 60%, and in 2004 - has already exceeded 70% [27]. Also note that about 90% of China's energy imports from the Persian Gulf. And this is the paradox of modern naval construction in China: Economic Strategy "Go Outside" (aka Going Global Strategy) gives uncharacteristic precedent for the development of the continental states, vector of foreign economic expansion, for independent realization of which there is no adequate commercial fleet, and Naval forces are implicated into the contest with the sea powers, trying to play as an ultimate force field…


  1. Composite phase "four modernizations program" that focuses on the growth of export potential Ki-tai.
  2. See the World Economy: Projections to 2020 / Publication of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, ed.Acad. Dynkin, AA - M.: MA, 2007. - 429. It must be noted that this work was done before the current financial crisis, it is obvious "podredaktiruyuschego" these forecasts. It's also worth noting the nature of the value of this indicator (GDP), in our view, reflects the lopsided nature of economic development.
  3. See Vedernikov, Y. Red Dragon. Modern naval forces in China. - Vladivostok, 2007. - 140.
  4. Cit. by publishing agency "Xin Hua" from 24.12.2008
  5. Experience of the Soviet Union put it in the evolution of carrier-based ships, initiated design studies in the late 1950's., And interrupted in 1991, simultaneously with the political collapse of the country. Total was built seven ships: two helicopter - Project 1123 ("Moscow" and "Leningrad"), and five aircraft carrier ships, the scheme evolved from the limited capacity of aircraft vertical takeoff "(Kiev, Minsk (pr 1143), "Novorossiysk" (1143.3) and Baku (pr.1143.4)) and to "horizontal take-off" ("Admiral Kuznetsov" - pr.1143.5). Remained unfinished Varyag », sistership« Kuznetsova, "and" Ulyanovsk ", created as a development vehicle, etc. 1143.5 fitted with a nuclear power plant and heavy air group.
  6. See Shipbuilding, № 3-2005. P.18. It does not take into account the cost of expenses for aircraft and capital construction on the Black Sea shipyard.
  7. In various sources fighter "Su-27 and MiG-29" have a different index that takes into account one or another modification of the aircraft. In order not to confuse the reader, we take to refer to these types of machines are listed designations. This also applies to helicopters Ka-27 "in the Chinese Navy referred to as the" Ka-28 ".
  8. Ex. Russian. TAKR "Gorshkov", the fourth in a series of housing 1143rd project. Currently undergoing renovations in Severodvinsk, followed by transfer of the Indian Navy.
  9. Roughly one kilometer per second ...
  10. See V. Markov, K. Perov Soviet air missile air-to-earth. " - Moscow: Publishing Center Eksprint, 2005. C. 46.
  11. Discussed below.
  12. See Marine electronics, 3-2005. P.16
  13. Marine electronics. Quick Reference Guide. CP6: Polytechnic, 2003. P.41, 43.
  14. For example, see from "Kiev" to "Kuznetsov". Reflections of an officer of the electromechanical combat service on the development of TAKR "Admiral Kuznetsov" / Typhoon. Military-Technical almanac. 5-2003.
  15. See Shipbuilding, № 3-2005. P.18.
  16. See Military Aircraft. Book 1. - Minsk: Popurri, 1999. - S. 312-313.
  17. Design of light aircraft carriers, the Royal Navy «Invincible». Maidanov OA, / Shipbuilding abroad. 1985. P. 25
  18. In this aspect, we do not understand the purpose of construction for the PLA Navy amphibious assault ship (project 071), with no "through" flight deck and was originally a limited fleet. In fact, for the same money you could get a multi-purpose vehicle ...
  19. See the backbone of the Navy. Kozyrev, SG / / Military Thought, 6-7 1992, p.56-62.
  20. Performed by the author in the manuscript "Red Dragon. Modern Chinese Navy destroyers. The evolution and military capability. "
  21. We give a simple example. Staff ammunition missile destroyer is 8 "Harpoon", launched from the interval 3 sec. In this case, Shtil "mounted on the Chinese class destroyers" modern ", implementation is ongoing firing every 12 seconds. at the turn of the intrusion detection PKR 18 km. "Primitive sub-account" indicates that the fourth or fifth "harpoon" imbues the defense of Chinese destroyer ", though, and because of its air defense system" simply do not have time to recharge ...
  22. See aircraft carriers - the element of balanced fleet. Matveichuk F. Babi I. Potvorov VA / Sea collection, 1-1992. C.27-31
  23. In 2006, China's AWACS aircraft means: 4 AWACs «KJ-2000 (operating range up to 2000 miles, the radar detection range - up to 250 miles) long and 8 aircraft AEW« Y-8J »(operational radius of the order of 1000 miles , radar detection range - up to 250 miles).
  24. However, the capacity of China in light of the situation over the horizon radar stations open the sources of information have not been confirmed
  25. Features AWACs: «E-2C Hawkeye - operational range - 850 miles, the radar detection range - up to 270 miles," E - 767 (Boeing 767 AWACS) "- operational range - 1700 miles, the radar detection range - up to 350 miles.
  26. See the Sea collection. 9-1999. P.76.
  27. See the high surplus of China's foreign trade increases the risks to economic growth. Publication of the Xinhua News Agency on 29.07.2005 - see


Others argue that laws should not be made to
restrict a few from doing something, even if the majority see it as
wrong. Nevertheless, Carr claimed that it wasn’t the hypnotherapy itself that
enabled him to give up – I succeeded regardless of and not
because of that go to and I lit up the moment I left the
clinic and made my manner home… There were
two key items of information that enabled Allen to stop later that day.
You might not like one or the other one would be your favourite.

Feel free to visit my website Volcano Vaporizer

Post a Comment

Have a say...