Saturday, April 16, 2011

Forgotten GUN Blum

by Simon Fedoseev

System of a machine gun was designed by Mikhail Nikolayevich Blum (1907-1970) - later known developer of various samples of weapons and ammunition - in the very beginning of his path as a designer-gunsmith, in 1929. At this time, Blum served as a gunsmith in parts of the Far East Special Red Banner Army, but in early 1930 was directed at the disposal of the Chief Artillery Directorate of the Red Army to carry out their inventions.


Special problem of automatic pattern learning machine-gun crew was then very relevant.Machine guns were considered the basis of firepower of infantry, a skeleton of its combat formations. The growth of machine-gun "Maxim" in the Red Army and the entry into service a new machine gun Degtyarev DP raised the issue of quality training mass gunner. Per se could not be achieved without the regular firing live rounds at targets. But under a regime similar savings rate of live ammunition was very undesirable, especially because when consumed it and the resource of military weapons, stocks of which are still insufficient.

see also: Maxim Machine Gun 3D Model

Not by chance one of the articles in the Journal of Military Gazette "(1927) was called" Machine Gun-saving mode, and teacher training "Shot" V. Glazatov in the same year, wrote in an infantry tactics book, which is widely resorted to practical machine gunners firing live ammunition "beyond the power not only our own, yet not cost the country got stronger, but even economically wealthy bourgeois States." On the other hand, not at all the parts to build a shooting range of appropriate size to provide the necessary security during firing from automatic weapons. Relatively cheap and low-power small-caliber cartridge was a great solution to these problems.

At that time, small-caliber weapon under the 5.6-mm rimfire cartridges - original or altered from the fighting (for the better securing the skill) - widely used for personnel training in many armies. Now a small-caliber pistols, revolvers and rifles added small-caliber machine gun training. But when it is required to develop a number of challenges in the automation and power allowing for the rimfire cartridge (or, as they said, "side-fire"), to bear arms in small sizes.

The slight pressure created in the barrel when firing 5.6-mm rimfire cartridge, forced to choose automatic, based on the impact of free blow. The trigger gun school operated by reciprocating the mainspring, the shot is done with the rear sear. Originally scheduled for target practice to mount small-caliber gun inside a machine gun "Maxim", had to minimize the size of the receiver and the length of the bolt. This led to excessively high rate of fire - up to 3000 rounds per minute, so we had to introduce the moderator of pace, reduces it to 450-800 rounds per minute. Again, to reduce the size is limited to shop with a mobile rack capacity of 25 rounds.

However, after production tests from the "gun-liner" was abandoned in favor of small-sized machine gun, mounted outside the "Maxim". Accordingly, increased the size of the receiver, it is possible to ensure the rate of fire of 600 rds / min (similar to the rate of fire machine-Maxima "), without the express moderator, which was expelled from the construction. Original power system was solved. Training a machine gun, fastened from the outside of combat, allowed to use Store more capacity and firing long bursts.

Drum Shop gun Blum included cartridge disc in a circular box and is driven by a spring. The circumference of the disc had 40 isolated nests in which to insert cartridges (for the safety of filled only 39 nests). After the shutter to move forward, pick up a cartridge from the slot, opposite the breech barrel, and shall be sent to the cartridge in the chamber. Two of the striker, is rigidly fixed to the front of the gate, struck a blow to the composition of the capsule in the rim liner, place a shot. When moving the gate back under recoil cartridge cases are drawn from the barrel, and again took place in the nest. After the departure gate at a sufficient distance cartridge disk rotated, placing the barrel in front of a nest with another patron. If the trigger remains depressed, the shutter under the action of its spring again went ahead and repeated the cycle of automation.

Thanks to a shot "with protruding bolt and great length blowback automatic machine gun work differed smooth - hitting the gate in front and rear positions were malooschutimy. "Direct" cartridge feeding reduces the load on it and increased the reliability of the system. When attaching the machine gun on top gun "Maxim" drum shop located on the right.

For learning first numbers machine gun DP, DT Tank or Aircraft DA used the same gun Blum, who was attached to bracket certain parts resemblance to the corresponding sample. Thus, for the training, manual machine gun (“machine gun-degtyarevtsev "as they are sometimes called to distinguish it from "maksimistov ", ie calculations of heavy machine guns) for the machine gun have a wooden stock, sights, perforated barrel shroud, a bipod. Drum shop located in the bottom of this weapon. In the imitation gun was mounted DT metal butt, gun YES - rear control arm.

Of course, small-caliber cartridge was unable to mimic the action of the recoil of his rifle and machine-gun brother, but it was allowed to develop methods aimed fire with limited shooting range. Limiting the range of a bullet from a machine gun Blum did not exceed 1000 m. For comparison: the machine gun "Maxim" it was 5000 meters, the machine gun DP - 3800 m. The bullet 7.62-mm cartridge retains its killer effect up to 2500 m, range of slaughter Bullet 5.6-mm cartridges for more than an order of magnitude smaller.

Produced training machine guns, of course, in smaller quantities than fighting. So, in 1933 Kovrov Toolmaker number 2 (now plant them. Degtyarev) issued 33 gun Blum, in 1934 - 1150 in 1935 - 1515.





5,6 mm


22 LR (5,6-mm "long rifle")

Body weight machine guns without magazine

3,3 kg

Weight shop

1,1 kg

Length of gun

946 mm

Length of barrel machine gun

645 mm (a variant of the rifle-gun "400 mm)

Rate of fire

600 rds / min


detachable drum

Magazine capacity

39 rounds


Small-caliber gun Blum played a role in improving the firearms training of personnel in the 30 years, freely used in the system of non-military training. After World War II to the machine guns of this type did not return. In the 50 years when a large number of old military weapons handed in hunting, made an attempt to turn in hunting weapons and the remains of small-caliber machine guns. Machine gun supplied with a wooden lodge and diopter (ring) at gunpoint. With such a "rifle-gun held a trial for shooting wolves from an airplane (it was a campaign against wolves), but this experience it and stop there.


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