Russian Broken Translation; made understandable by GarryB
The interrelations of the participating countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, until now, cause by no means academic disputes. Anglo-Saxon and German historians often substantially exaggerate the value of that aid, which the western allies rendered the USSR. But how was matter in actuality? Answer can be found on the pages of history, including dedicated to the deliveries of armament and technology to Naval fleet.
Boats under the veil
In this world during the war to the USSR under the Lend-Lease supplied 464 warships.Among them, the torpedo boats "Vosper", "Higgins", "Elko."
"Vosper" – ,its undoubted merits - armored conning tower, defended the commander and the steering of bullets of small arms, and the availability of radio and radar. Armament included two 533-mm torpedo tubes (TA), one 20-mm artillery installation (AC), four 12.7 mm machine guns in twin plants. The boat could take on board the four depth bombs.
Torpedo boats such as "Elko" the third series were conveyed in the dismantled form first into Vladivostok, and after the removal of blockade also into Leningrad. On the spot they were collected."Elko" had a rate of 38.4 knots. Armament was two 533-mm TA, two 20-mm guns, four 12.7 mm machine guns and 12 depth charges. Some boats were equipped with radar.
Boats of the "Higgins" was a bit slower, "Elko", but not inferior to them in the seaworthiness and maneuverability. At 46-48 tons displacement, they developed a speed of 36.3 knot, cost the same speed - 21 knots could go 420 miles, allowing them, in particular, make transitions across the Atlantic to Britain. Armament consisted of four torpedo boats to ski the TA, a 40-mm AC (on some boats), two 20-mm AC, four 12.4 mm machine guns in twin plants. Boats could take on board four small depth charges. Rope torpedo tubes are not too well in the Arctic because it is often out of order due to icing. Also on these boats are easily damaged screws (for each boat necessarily assumed three sets of screws).
Thus, provided the ships were by no means free from defects. They are much inferior to our boats gliding speed and maneuver, but had a number of advantages: better navigability, especially important was for the North and Pacific theaters of hostilities, a powerful artillery and anti-submarine weaponry and, of course, the radar (since 1944) and station.
Substantial question of timing!! The Northern Fleet has boats of the type "Elko" in June 1945, ie after the end of hostilities. Two “Higgins” entered in April 1943, and 18 launches - from January to April 1944. It is understandable that by that time the outcome of war has long ago been solved. Boats "Vosper" in general in the fighting in the north did not participate, and the Black Sea, where they were transferred, and did after the war.
Boats "Higgins" (31 units), obtained through Lend-Lease, were included in the Pacific Fleet, 5-24 October 1945, and to could not take any part in the hostilities. Only boats "Vosper", began arriving in July 1944, were in the Navy during the war with Japan.
Total Soviet Navy received under Lend-Lease 87 boats, representing only 17 percent of the total.
Came from allies and minesweepers. From the U.S. - 34 AM and 43 ship USS. From Britain - 12 ships: 7 type TAM and 5-type MMC.
British minesweepers type MMC - small highly specialized vessels. In general, their performance characteristics, they were at the level of auxiliary minesweepers of the Soviet Navy, but had a solenoid LL trawl and acoustic trawl "Congo", which dramatically increases their combat value.
Minesweepers type TAM did not have special ships built. These whalers in the late twenties - early thirties, joined the Norwegian whaling fleet. After its occupation, they returned to their docks in Britain, where they were converted into minesweepers. Just as the ship of MMC, who joined the Northern Fleet later, TAM trawlers were equipped with influence sweeps LL and acoustic trawl "Congo." Poorly armed and slow-moving, they nevertheless had great significance for the Northern Fleet, as were the first ships in its structure, able to deal with bottom, non-contact mines.
According to some of today's professionals,minesweepers, there were the most sophisticated mine-trawl vessels in the Soviet Navy during the Great Patriotic War. Their trawl arms - trawl "Oropeza, electromagnetic trawl Mk 5 and Mk-2 Acoustic allowed to deal with all types of mines that existed at the time.
Also of note: minesweeper type TAM had powerful anti-submarine weapons, which included rocket mortars Mk-10, which allowed for a successful struggle against the enemy submarines.Radio also did minesweeper in essence a multi-purpose vehicle. According to this index, it approached the Soviet ships such as "bomb".
You may recall that these trawlers were building, with a unified corvettes PS, one of the most effective anti-submarine ships of the Second World War. Were very impressive and spectral characteristics: the speed with trawl 8.5-9.5 node, depending on the type of trawl. Armament of the ship, including two 76-mm guns and eight 20-mm automatic cannon allows the use of vehicles and to cover the landings and escorting ships, and this advantage in the Soviet Navy.
All 10 North Sea trawlers type TAM were obtained during 1943 (October-November - seven ships) and 1944 (February - three ships) and managed to take part in the battles of World War II.
The Pacific Fleet also before the actual end of hostilities with Japan received 22 trawlers: in June and August 1945 to 11 units. They took part in amphibious operations, and combat trawling in the port Seysin.
The last type of neutral ships to be delivered under the Lend-Lease to the USSR, became a U.S. Navy ship type. These small ships were reduced and cheaper copy of the vehicles of TAM, possessing all their advantages and disadvantages.
It is customary to assume that ships of the type Navy became largest series of trawlers, set to us on the lend-lease. However, of 43 trawlers directly in the course of military actions with Fascist Germany none was sent. PF got 24 trawlers only in the middle of 1945, they took part in the hostilities against Japan. The Baltic and Black Sea fleets such as the Navy ships arrived in June and August 1945 and could not participate in hostilities.
Frigates to submarines
Third type of ships presented in the USSR were escort and antisubmarine. In all on the lend-lease were obtained 28 destroyer escorts - frigates of the type “F”, 78 large hunters of the type SC -110, 60 units of small hunters - patrol boats of the type MO -1.
Frigates of the "F" were quite modern ships. Constructed in 1942-1944, they had all the means of detecting surface, underwater and air targets, which included radar, sonar, and radio direction finders. Speed 15-12.5 knots - the best escort for ships. In the naval forces of countries such as Brazil and Greece, these ships continued to serve until the mid 70-ies of 20th century, so successful was the project, and build quality was high.
Frigates of the "F" were very much in demand by our fleet, especially in the north, where it passed the basic escort and convoy operations. However, that's bad luck: the Northern Fleet during World War II has not entered any of these ships.
Until the end of hostilities against Japan, the Pacific Fleet was transferred to 10 frigates: one involved in the landing at the port of Racine in North Korea, six - in the port Seysin, two more - in the Sakhalin port of Joshua Tree, and one escorted the Soviet transport ships along the coast of Primorye. Thus, to speak of any significant contribution to escort ships of type "F" in the victory is unlikely.
Not so with the great hunter-type SC-110, included in our fleet designation BO-1 (in some references BO-2).
Constructed by "Elko", they had 126 tons displacement, a wooden building, two engines "Penkeyk" previously used in the construction of civil and military airships. We ship had screws with variable pitch, but from the weapons a 40-mm gun "Bofors", two 20-mm machine "Oerlikon", two rocket-propelled mortars "Hedzhehong" rod and two mortars. With this arsenal ship could go 1800 miles at a speed of 20 knots. And it was equipped with a good sonar equipment.
It should be noted that for tactical views of the U.S. Navy boats are not designed for direct combat with a single submarine (submarine). They were supposed to detect the boat, at best, drive them away from the object of protection. Task of destroying submarines were assigned to a group of hunters or other more powerful types of anti-submarine ships.
However, our sailors, accustomed to deal at best with a small boat and weakly-armed MO-4, came under the "charm" great hunters and recklessly engage in a direct clash with the enemy submarine. It was so in December 1944, perished the North Sea ships BO-230 BO-229, and in March 1945, perished BO-224. One additional large hunter is lost on May 9, 1944. After obtaining holes from the close breaks of aircraft bombs, it sank, but it was subsequently raised.
Total Northern Fleet received 46 large hunting-type BW-1 used here is very active. Four of them were subsequently transferred to the Baltic Sea, and six - to the Black Sea. Most participated in the fighting, which continued in the northern seas, in fact, until the last day of the war.
With regard to the Baltic and Black Sea warships, they moved to their new theater after the end of hostilities. The Pacific Fleet has received prior to the actual cessation of hostilities 20 frigates. Here they are for other purposes are not used, but took part in amphibious operations.
I must admit that the frigates played a large role in combat operations at sea during World War II.
The third type of escort ships - the most obscure. Boats of the type MO-1, as they called them in the domestic fleet, were designed in the U.S. on the basis of rescue boats to directly monitor the beach area of Florida and the Caribbean. Until 1942 this task was performed in the United States unarmed private, pleasure and fishing boats, which leads to tragedy. German submariners often do not even bother to heat them, and just shot the entire crew. At one of these ships once sailed writer namely Hemingway. The losses prompted the U.S. Navy to build a fleet of small boats such as RTS, can at least get away from the submarine.
In the USSR, was delivered 60 of these boats, in our conditions are suitable only for the protection of inland raids than in the main they did. 30 boats were given to the Northern and Pacific fleets, where 18 North Sea boats were transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, and two - the Baltic. All boats entered in the Soviet Navy until the end of hostilities. From the Soviet boat "Sea Hunter" and patrol boats, they accounted for 9.04 per cent.
Among the ships received the Soviet Navy, and were landing. 30 landing craft arrived to the Pacific Fleet. In 1945 - 25 small infantry landing craft with a displacement of 380 tons, capable of accommodating up to infantry companies. At the same time were obtained in 1913 landing craft with a displacement of 286 tons. These ships took part in three landings of Soviet troops in North Korea and the Kuril island Shumshu. For comparison: only during the Great Patriotic War the Soviet Navy had landed 123 nautical tactical and operational landing, which involved 100,000 people, while not having any special assault-landing craft. If these vessels appeared in 1942-1944 in the North, Baltic and Black Sea fleets, no matter how many of the victims managed to escape, how many lives of Soviet sailors saved!
Summing up the supply of war ships and boats, we obtain the following figures:
- The Northern Fleet until the end of hostilities got under the lend-lease 76 ships and boats. In total, the fleet in 1945 there were 218 ships and boats;
- Pacific Fleet until the end of hostilities against Japan was on the Lend-Lease 181 ships and boats. In total, the Navy in August 1945 there were 657 ships and boats;
- The Baltic and Black Sea fleets until the end of hostilities had in its composition, respectively, two boats and 18 motor boats MO-1, translated from the Northern Fleet.After the end of active hostilities, the Baltic fleet was 28 ships and boats, the Black Sea - 36 ships and boats.
Is it necessary to comment on such figures? The greatest number of combat ships and boats received by the Pacific Fleet, who fought only three weeks. This can be explained only by blood-interest of Americans that the Soviet Union entered the war with Japan before the U.S. forces in the Pacific will experience the power of one millionth of the Kwantung Army.
By year of delivery of warships and boats is as follows: 1942nd - 5 units 1943th - 18 units of 1944th - 163 units 1945th to the end of hostilities - 157 units.
In addition to ships and aircraft, the Soviet Navy received from the allies a lot of other equipment and spare parts. So, from Britain to the Soviet Navy sent were 555 radar stations for various purposes (Mk-IV, 281, 291, 291v, 291w), and from the United States - 641 (SK, SG, SF-1, SL, SO-13). I must say that at the beginning of the war ship of the fleet had only radar stations on the Black Sea cruiser "Molotov".
Lend-Lease radars were supplied only in 1944 when the Americans and British satisfy its own demand. Prior to this radar shot from the ships passed the USSR.
England sent to the Soviet Union for the (Soviet) fleet 329 sonars of the type “ASDIC” and others. “The ultra-acoustic instruments (sonars) obtained by us (from England) sharply differed by being much better compared to our domestic equivalent stations”, thus evaluated this technology the Deputy Department Chief of the connection the Navy of the USSR the engineer captain of the 1st rank Gusev. As recalled commanding of northern fleet Vice Admiral [A].[G]. Golovko: “Qualitatively changed the equipment of ships with technical equipment. At the beginning of war northern fleet had only sound locating stations “Poseidon” and “Cepheus -2”, on two destroyers and several launches MO* (small anti sub vessels), then by 1942 began the deliveries of hydroacoustic apparatuses “Tamir-1” and “Dragon -1230”. Toward the end their wars had about half of all surface ships and launches”. In the Black Sea fleet GAS toward the end of war were equipped 37 percent of ships and launches, in the Baltic region GAS they had 13 launches MO*.
Allies also supplied the Soviet navy large number of ships engines and generators. They were equipped with more than one-third of all combat boats.
Among the aircraft supplied under Lend-Lease for the national Navy, special importance was attached to a heavy seaplane. They had a large range and were able to perform the tasks of heavy sea-torpedo bomber, driving a scout and, most importantly - antisubmarine aircraft distant ocean areas. As part of the national navy to the beginning of the war there was only one such plane - ANT-44D (MTB-2).
In the Soviet Union have put about 400 of these machines, we wore the name of the GTS (seaplane transport), a further 27 aircraft were assembled from these parts. According to the memoirs VI Rakov, in 1941-1942, commanded the 2nd Aviation Brigade's Black Sea fleet, composed of both time and consisted of Squadron, equipped GTS, these planes were used as a naval intelligence, naval and land bombers. But the absence of special equipment did not make it possible to use them for the solution of antisubmarine problems, but indeed precisely they were basic, in particular in the North Sea theater.
Substantial aid showed domestic fleet attack aircraft A -20 “Boston”. Domestic Air Force and Navy aircraft were about 2000 of these aircraft. Marine modification storm trooper A 20ZH could take on board a torpedo or a bomb FAB-1000, which makes this aircraft as a torpedo bomber. It is these planes July 16, 1944 sank in the port of Kotka defense cruiser "Niobe."
As for fighters, the Hurricane of English manufacture and Kittihawk (P-40 Tomahawk) their importance lies primarily in the fact that in the beginning of 1942 they gave the opportunity to "plug the hole" before the advent of modern Soviet fighters.Excessive moodiness as these machines have led to serious losses. Thus, according to Admiral AG Golovko, that engine failure Fighter Kittihawk "has caused the death May 30, 1942 Lieutenant Colonel BFSafonov, the best at the time of the Soviet ace.
Lend-lease program for the national Navy, certainly had great value. Especially like to mention the supply of those ships, aircraft and equipment, which then were not made by the domestic industry. In general, it was to help the true allies. Russia forever keep gratitude in its heart.However, an impartial analysis shows that the supply of arms and military equipment under Lend-Lease were not decisive for the victory of the Soviet Army and Navy in World War II and the war with Japan.
It is necessary to note heroism and courage of seamen and pilots of the Soviet Navy. Under the heaviest wartime conditions they knew how to deliver ships, aircraft and equipment to our bases and airfields. They conducted small ships, actually the launch through the zone of military operations, through the oceans, in spite of the season, on the storms. They conducted ships, control of which they just barely mastered. Not one ship of those obtained on the lend-lease during the installation was not lost through the fault of Soviet crew. We will remember always this exploit!
Vadim Levashko ,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor